Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 28

Table 1

State Test Scores and Hours Library Open: Bivariate Correlations

a. Reading test for elementary and middle schools, language arts test for high school. Used z scores to standardize measure.
b. A formula that combines reading and non-reading test scores, weighted by the number of students eligible to take the test.
* p <.05,**p <.01.
In Wisconsin (Smith, 2006), partial correlations were calculated; there was a positive
correlation at the fourth grade between library hours and test scores when controlling for
teacher/pupil ratio, with an r value of .115, (p = .014).

28

State
Minnesota (Baxter & Smalley, 2003)
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006)
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003)
Minnesota (Baxter & Smalley, 2003)
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003)
New Mexico (Lance et al., 2002)
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006)
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006)
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003)
North Carolinaa (Burgin et al., 2003)
Missouri (Miller et al., 2003)

Grade
3
4
4
5
7
8
8
8
11
K-12
K-12

State Test
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Reading
Language Arts
Reading
Language Arts
Reading
Language Arts/
Reading
Weighted
Average Map
Indexb

r
.111**
.114*
.257*
.08*
.368**
.196
.268**
.302**
.188**
.196**
-.079

p
.005
.016
<.05
.034
<.01
.052
<.001
<.001
<.01
.008
.219

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/42/ocr/: accessed January 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .