Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 26

Cochran authored a bill passed by the House and Senate allocating $500 million for school
libraries. About this legislation, Reed (as cited in NCES, 2005) said,
Too many books on school library shelves across the country contain harmful stereotypes
and inaccurate material. The reason for this horrible state of affairs is the loss of targeted
national funding for libraries-20 years ago dedicated school library funding was rolled
into a block grant. By block granting funds to the states we abandoned a national
commitment to improving school libraries (p.6).
It should be noted, though, that in 2002, the first year of the program, just $12.5 million was
available for awards. If all of the over 76,000 school libraries divided that money equally, it
would amount to about $164 per library.
Of the many elements that comprise a school library program, three are so fundamental
that their status affects the success of virtually all other elements of the program: information
access and delivery, staffing, and budget. The following sections will review the research on
these three elements in terms of their relationships to learning and teaching elements such as
information literacy instruction, integration of curriculum, and collaboration; to program
administration elements such as scheduling and administrative support; and ultimately, to
relationship of all these factors to student achievement.
Information Access and Delivery
For the purposes of this study, the idea of information access and delivery encompasses not only
information resources, but the means by which those resources can come into the possession of
students. Access includes the availability of print, audio, video, and digital materials to students
and teachers; the amount of hours and the conditions under which the library is open and
available to students; the availability of technology for student use, and the availability of staff to
help in both retrieving and understanding information.

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/40/ocr/: accessed March 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .