Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 18
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of books, great value to pupils accrues from a combination of teacher-librarian efforts" (p. 24).
Even before the publication in 1945 of the ALA sponsored School Libraries for Today and
Tomorrow (Committees on Post-War Planning), the seeds of current approaches to school library
programs had been planted, particularly in terms of access to information, collaboration,
professional training, integration of information literacy into the curriculum, and leadership.
The 1945 standards actually do not reflect current positions on school library programs as
strongly as did The Librarian and the Teacher of English (Heller & Labrant 1938).
Nevertheless, they advanced the case for school library programs in several key ways. The
purpose of the school library is "identical with the basic purpose of the school itself' (ALA
Committees on Post-war Planning, 1945, p. 9), and as such, is placed under the responsibility of
the local board of education, instead of under the domain of the public libraries. Consistent with
this shift, the standards articulated functions of school librarians that were distinctly different
from those of a public librarian, including providing support for guidance counselors' goals and
working on curriculum development with teachers (Pond, 1998). The standards also affirmed the
importance of cooperation among the superintendent, principals, classroom teachers and the
school librarian in implementing library and school-wide goals (Committees on Post-War
Planning, 1945). In addition to qualitative standards, this document provided quantitative
standards for size of library, size of collection, and per-pupil certificated and clerical support,
noting that student population growth should come with corresponding growth in the size of the
collection and the amount of staffing to best meet student needs. The guiding principles and
standards of a school library program, finally, were inclusive of both elementary and secondary
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/32/: accessed February 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .