Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 13
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chaired this committee, which was comprised of school principals from the National Education
Association and members of the ALA's school library section (McCarthy, 2006). Notably
included is the recommendation that the collection should include not only reference material,
but recreational reading, duplicate copies of popular titles, books for teachers, and multi-media
materials such as film, pictures, stereographs, and audio recordings (ALA, 1925).
The elementary standards, known together with the secondary standards as the Certain
Reports after their chairman, took note of the evolving progressive philosophy in education and
identified the school library program's role in that process, saying, "significant changes in
methods of teaching require that the school library supplement the single textbook course of
instruction and provide for the enrichment of the school curriculum" (ALA, 1925, p.1;
McCarthy, 2006, p. 280). The strategy of moving away from the textbook as the sole source of
information and the rise of the school library are inextricably linked (Cecil & Heaps, 1940;
Davies, 1969; Roscello, 2004; Callison & Preddy, 2006). In 1915, Johnson (as cited in Davies,
1969) said, "a conviction has developed, especially during the last twenty years (1895-1915) that
the textbook should be supplemented by collateral reading"(p. 323). In the same year, Bostwick
said, "A library, used for teaching purposes in a school, is indeed a 'composite book.' It insures
contact with a composite instead of a single mind" (1915, p. 403).
The implications of an educational system in which no single source is considered the
final authority are clear. Says Bostwick, "This means a library at the very beginning, and at high
school age it means a large library" (p. 404). Two years after the elementary standards were
published, National Education Association president Morgan said in the preface to School
Library Yearbook-Number 1, "The School Library lies at the very root of the new pedagogy of
individual differences. It is the very heart of any program of socialized effort and individual
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/27/?rotate=90: accessed June 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .