Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 11

experiments under the eye of a trained teacher (p. 88)"-the librarian. About information access,
Keyes made this point:
Perhaps there was a time when nearly every high-school girl had access in her own home
to a fairly well-selected library where she might browse; but today not only is it true that
the high school reaches a class who cannot afford such a luxury, but even the homes of
the well-to-do are less often stocked with books than formerly... The best means that I
know for cultivating in our young people a desire for a private library is to surround them
for four years with something approaching thereto-a place where they feel thoroughly at
home, where they may wander from shelf to shelf, taking down a book here and there,
freely consulting the librarians as to the meaning and value of this or that volume, and
taking home any but those in greatest demand (p. 91).
And Breck (1916) had this to say about the importance of information access:
Our books should be in the school building, not in a branch of the city library, no matter
how conveniently located, not even if only across the street or next door. No fact is better
established in high-school work today than that a well-equipped, well-administered
library within the school building will be steadily and increasingly patronized. I myself
can bear testimony as to the difficulty with which young people are driven to the city
library, even when near at hand (p. 11).
About workload and staffing, Fletcher (1915), an Illinois high school librarian, remarked,
The librarian has, of necessity, long hours. She begins work about eight o'clock, and has
to evict tenants to get away by five. She has, in all probability, no vacant hour, and her
forty-five-minute period for luncheon is often cut short by seekers for fact... With such
handicaps, plus the large amount of routine clerical work she must perform, if there is no
assistant-and even if there is-the average librarian cannot be the inspirational force she
should be (p. 357).
Fletcher discussed the skill with which the librarian must work with teachers, guiding them in
their use of instructional materials and strategies, and she predicted that as school leaders, they
would "equal-or surpass-our best supervisors of today" (p. 361). Certain (1924) noted that
the elementary school librarian gives instruction "in the use of the dictionary and the
encyclopedia. She teaches the children how to read, how to skim, how to take notes, and how to

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/25/ocr/: accessed May 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .