Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 188
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level, the overall school library program accounted for less than 1% of the variance in test scores.
That number increased to as much as 3% in middle school and to 21% at the high school level.
Library Services and Staffing
At elementary, middle and high school levels, the certificated and total staffing levels
were generally associated with the strength of library program elements. The strength of those
associations increased with each grade level, and at the 11th grade, there was a significant
correlation between both certificated and total staffing levels and every library service regularly
Assumptions and Limitations
The data for this study came from four publically available sources within the California
Department of Education (CDE): school and community information from the state Academic
Progress Index (API), school information from the School Accountability Report Card (SARC),
test scores from the criterion-referenced California Standards Tests (CST), and the CDE School
Library Survey. This study assumed that school and community information from the API and
SARC were accurate. It was also conducted with the assumption that the CST scores are a valid
measure of student achievement; however, the CST scores in English Language Arts and social
studies--chosen because these courses of study are commonly associated with library use--
represent a very narrow band of student achievement and therefore provide a correspondingly
narrow view of the relationship between student achievement and school library media
In addition, while schools are required to submit a completed CDE School Library
Survey annually, there is no consequence for noncompliance. Therefore, this population was
technically self-selected. Nevertheless, 61% of elementary schools, 95% of middle schools, and
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/202/: accessed March 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .