Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 187
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2. Total library services were significantly related to student achievement at all levels, and this
relationship persisted when controlling for all school and community variables.
Library Program Elements
1. At the elementary level, English Language Arts CST scores were significantly related to
hours open, collection size, library budget, and total technology available through the library.
Correlations persisted when controlling for all school and community variables.
2. At the middle school level, English Language Arts and social studies CST scores tended to
rise as both the hours open and the total amount of technology available increased. These
correlations were significant when controlling for all school and community variables. In
bivariate correlations, collection size and library budget were significantly related to test
scores; these correlations remained significant when controlling for four of six school and
community variables with English Language Arts and five of six school and community
variables with social studies CST scores.
3. At the high school level, English Language Arts and U.S. History CST scores were
significantly correlated with hours open, collection size, library budget, and total technology
available in the library. These correlations remained significant when controlling for all
school and community variables. As library hours, collection size, budget, and technology in
the library increased, there tended to be a corresponding increase in both English Language
Arts and U.S. History CST scores.
Total Library Program
Consistent with the overall percentages of fully staffed schools from elementary through
high school, there was an increasingly stronger relationship between total library programs and
student achievement when controlling for all school and community variables. At the elementary
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/201/: accessed July 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .