Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 186
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Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Total Staffing and Student Achievement, Grades 4, 8, 11
Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 8 Grade 11 Grade 11
Control ELA ELA Social ELA U.S.
None (bivariate correlation) -.04* .12** .19** .54** .56**
Parent Education Level .00 .09** .17** .53** .56**
Free and Reduced Lunch .12** .18** .26** .53** .56**
Ethnicity .02 .22** .28** .57** .59**
Percentage English Learners .04* .19** .26** .59** .60**
Avg. Teacher Salary -.06** .07* .12** .49** .52**
Percentage Fully Credentialed -.04* .09** .06** .54** .57**
*p <.05, **p <.001.
The summary of bivariate and partial correlations across grade level show in Table 69 suggests
that the lack of correlation at the elementary level may have been due to an overall paucity of
credentialed and clerical staffing; as the overall staffing levels increased in middle school and
high school, so did the strength of correlations between staffing and student achievement.
1. At the fourth and eighth grade level, there were significant positive correlations between
English Language Arts CST scores and fourteen library staff services. Also at the middle
school level, social studies CST scores were significantly related to 16 library services. At
the high school level, 20 of 21 library services were significantly related to both English
Language Arts and U.S. History test scores.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/200/: accessed July 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .