Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 2

Achterman, Douglas L., Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries
and Student Achievement in California. Doctor of Philosophy (Information Science), December
2008, 225 pp., 71 tables, 5 figures, references, 196 titles.
This descriptive, non-experimental study examines the strength of the relationship
between California school library media programs and student achievement, using data from
California criterion-referenced state-wide tests, publically available school and community
demographic data, and a state survey of school library programs. Results indicate a substantial
discrepancy in library staffing levels from the elementary grades through the high schools.
Nevertheless, statistically significant correlations were found between certificated staffing levels
and student achievement at each grade. Significant correlations persisted at the elementary and
middle school when controlling for five of six school and community variables, and at the high
school when controlling for all six of those variables. Bivariate correlations between total
staffing and student achievement were significant at both the middle school and high school level
when controlling for all school and community variables. Generally, the strength of the
correlations between both certificated and total staffing tended to increase with grade level; at the
high school level, correlations were among the strongest reported in any statewide study to date.
There was a significant positive relationship between a majority of the 21 library services
regularly provided and student achievement at all levels. Total library services were significantly
related to student achievement at all levels when controlling for all school and community
variables. In multiple regression analyses, there was an increasingly stronger relationship
between total library programs and student achievement by grade level when controlling for all
school and community variables. At every level, certificated and total staffing levels were
associated with the strength of library program elements.

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/2/ocr/: accessed September 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .