Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 185
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That correlation remained significant when controlling for five of six school and community
variables. Certificated staffing levels were not significantly related to English Language Arts
CST scores in the middle school, but they were significantly related to social studies CST
scores, a correlation that persisted when controlling for five of six community variables. At
the high school level, certificated staffing levels were significantly related to both English
Language Arts and U.S. History CST scores, with r values of .44 and .45, p <.001,
respectively. Those correlations persisted and were generally strengthened when controlling
for all school and community variables.
3. The correlation between total staffing levels and student achievement strengthened as total
staffing levels increased from elementary through high school. At the elementary level,
where just over 1% of schools had both full time certificated librarians and clerks, results
were inconclusive, ranging from very weak negative to very weak positive partial and
bivariate correlations. At the middle school level, with 8.5% of schools employing full time
certificated librarians and clerks, there was a statistically significant relationship between
total staffing and student achievement in both English Language Arts and social studies CST
scores, and that relationship remained significant when controlling for all school and
community variables. At the high school level, where over 30% of schools have full time
certificated librarians and clerks, there was a significant correlation between total staffing
and both English Language Arts and U.S. History CST scores, with r values ranging from .49
to .60, p < .001.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/199/: accessed April 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .