Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 184
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At the high school level, the correlations between certificated library staff and library
services at the high school level were uniformly stronger than at elementary or middle school
levels. All correlations were significant at p=.001; eight library services had Pearson r values of
greater than .60. Total library services correlated with certificated library staffing levels at r =
.70. At the high school level, in contrast to middle and elementary school, there was a positive
correlation between certificated and clerical staffing levels (r = .40).
In twenty-four of twenty-seven cases, library services correlated more strongly with total
library staffing than with certificated library staffing, and all library services correlated
significantly at p=.001. Three services--total library services, hours open, and total technology--
correlated with total staffing at or near r =.80; nine services correlated at r values greater than
.70. In the correlations between certificated library staff and library services, only total library
services reached an r value.70.
Several key findings emerged from this study in the areas of staffing levels, library services,
library program elements, and the total library program.
1. There was a great discrepancy in library staffing levels from the elementary grades through
high schools. At the elementary level, just 1.2% of schools had both a full time library media
specialist and a full time clerk, compared to 8.5% at the middle school, and 30.3% at the high
2. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between certificated staffing levels
and student achievement on California Standards Tests (CST) at the elementary school level.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/198/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .