Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 183
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correlations between total staffing levels and services provided appears to contradict the lack of
positively significant correlation between total staffing and student achievement. What can be
concluded, though, is that total staffing tended to correlate more strongly with services offered
than did certificated staffing alone. For example, the r value for the correlation between hours
open and certificated staffing was .13, p <.001, versus .47 for the correlation between library
hours and total staffing. r values increased similarly in total technology (from r =.09 to r =.38, p
<.001) and total library services (from r= .18 to .38, p <.001).
All correlations between library services and certificated library staffing levels at the
middle school level were significant except one-coordination of cable TV, distance education,
and related activities-- and those correlations were typically stronger than at the elementary level.
Correlations were strongest among the following services: offering a program of curriculum-
integrated information literacy instruction (r = .52, p <.001), total library services (r = .46, p
<.001), planning or conducting workshops for teachers total library services (r = .44, p <.001),
collaboration with teachers to develop student learning (r = .41, p <.001) and total technology (r
All correlations between library services and total library staffing levels at the middle
school were significant; these correlations were stronger than those with certificated library
staffing in twenty-two of twenty-seven services, most notably in hours open (r = .68, p <.001),
total technology (r = .60, p <.001), and total library services (r = .59, p <.001). Data from
middle school more strongly demonstrate a relationship between the level of certificated staffing
and library services provided and suggest that total staffing is an even better indicator of services
provided than solely certificated staffing.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/197/: accessed October 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .