Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 182
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Research Question 5
Research Question 5: How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to a
combination of library program elements?
Results to this question followed the established pattern. There was a statistically
significant but very weak effect at the elementary level; combined library elements accounted for
just 0.2% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores when community and school
factors were controlled for in a hierarchical regression. At the middle school level, the library
factor accounted for 2% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores and 3% of the
variance in social studies CST scores. At the high school level, the library factor accounted for
19% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores and 21% of the variance in U.S.
History CST scores. In both cases, Beta weights indicated that the library factor was a stronger
predictor of scores than other school variables; in fact, the library factor was stronger than either
school or community factors in predicting U.S. History CST scores.
Research Questions 6 and 7
Research Question #6: If student achievement significantly correlates with school library
staff services, how does the level of these services vary, if at all, in relationship to certificated
library staffing levels?
Research Question 7: If student achievement significantly correlates with school library
staff services, how does the level of these services vary, if at all, in relationship to overall library
At the elementary level, while there was not a positive significant relationship between
total staffing levels and student achievement, there was a positive correlation between the
services the library provided and student achievement. The consistently positive significant
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/196/: accessed July 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .