Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 181
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Research Question 4
Research Question 4: How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to
other library program elements?
The patterns for correlations in answer to this question were the same as on prior
questions; the strength of correlations increased with grade level. At the elementary level, all
other library program elements-hours open, collection size, budget, and total technology-were
significantly, though weakly, related to English Language Arts CST scores in all bivariate and
At the middle school level, collection size and budget-related items-were still only
weakly correlated with student achievement, but hours open and total technology exhibited r
values in partial correlations of up to .28 and .27, p <.001, respectively.
At the high school level, where professional staffing was strongest, so were the
correlations between these library elements and student achievement. No bivariate or partial
correlation between these library elements and either English Language Arts or U.S. History
CST scores had an r value of less than .32, p <.001, and only budget had r values of less than
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/195/: accessed November 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .