Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 179
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History, those partial correlations ranged from r =.52, p <.001 when controlling for average
teacher salary to r =.60, p <.001 when controlling for percentage of English learners.
-Research Question 3
Research Question 3: How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to
library staff services offered, either independently or in combination?
At the fourth grade level, there were significant positive correlations between English
Language Arts CST scores and fourteen library staff services. The two strongest associations
were with informal instructing students in the use of resources, at r =.16 (p < .001), and
communicating proactively with principal, at r= .15, p < .001. Total services correlated with
the English Language Arts CST scores at r =.14, p < .001. Of the fourteen with significant
correlations, seven remained significant in partial correlations with all school and community
variables used as controls; the strongest of these were offering a program of curriculum-
integrated information literacy instruction, at r =.18, p <.001 and providing reference assistance
to students and teachers, at r =.17, p <.001, both controlling for the percent of teachers fully
credentialed. Total library services correlated significantly bivariate correlation with English
Language Arts scores at r =.14, p <.001, and with partial correlations when controlling for each
of the school and community variables. The strength of these scores ranged from r =.08, p
<.001, when controlling for parent education level to r =.13, p <.001 when controlling for free
and reduced lunch.
Again, the correlations between library services and student achievement were stronger at
the middle school than at the elementary school level. At the eighth grade level, there were also
fourteen services that were significantly related to English Language Arts CST scores, with the
three strongest being communicating proactively with principal, offering a program of
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/193/: accessed March 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .