Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 177
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factors, including average parent education level, percent of students eligible for free and
reduced lunch, ethnicity, percentage of English learners, average teacher salary, and percentage
of teachers fully credentialed. For question 5, a combination of library variables were then
entered into hierarchical multiple regressions, school and community factors entered first as
controls. Questions 6 and 7 then used bivariate correlations to assess the significance and
strength of relationships between staffing levels and services library programs provided.
Summary of Results
Research Question 1
Research Question 1: How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to the
levels of certificated staffing in school library media programs?
At the elementary level, there was a weak but statistically significant positive correlation
between certificated staffing and English Language Arts CST scores, r =.06, p <.001. The
strongest partial correlation controlled for ethnicity at r =.11, p <.001. At the middle school
level, the relationship between English Languages Arts CST scores and certificated staffing only
became significant in partial correlations, the strongest controlled for ethnicity, at r =.16, p
<.001. The bivariate correlation between Social Studies CST scores and certificated staffing was
weak but significant at r = .07, p <.001. Partial correlations generally increased the strength of
this relationship, the strongest control variable again being ethnicity at r =.22, p <.001. At the
high school level, the correlations were much stronger, at r =.44, p <.001 for English Language
Arts and r =.45, p <.001 for U.S. History CST scores. Partial correlations again typically
increased the strength of these relationships; the strongest for both English Language Arts and
U.S. History controlled for ethnicity at r =.52, p <.001.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/191/: accessed April 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .