Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 173
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Summary of Chapter 4
Research questions 1-7 were stated in the form of null hypotheses. Questions 1-4 were
addressed through bivariate and partial correlations and in each case, the null hypothesis was
rejected. For each question, bivariate correlations and partial correlations accounting for school
and community variables produced positive, statistically significant results. In addition, the
strength of the bivariate and partial correlations increased with grade level. That is, middle
school staffing and services were more strongly related to student achievement than at the
elementary level, and high school staffing and services were more strongly related to student
achievement than at the middle school level.
In addressing research question 5, library variables were combined in a factor analysis, as
were school and community variables. These factors were entered into hierarchical multiple
regressions, entering school and community variables first as controls, then determining the AR2
produced by the addition of the library factor. At each level, there was a statistically significant
positive result, which was very weak (AR2 = .002, p <.001) at the elementary level, somewhat
stronger (AR2 = .02, p <.001 for English Language Arts, AR2 = .03,p <.001 for Social Studies
CST scores) at the eighth grade, and considerably stronger at the high school level (AR2 =.19, p
<.001 for English Language Arts, AR2 = .21, p <.001 for U.S. History).
Research questions 1 and 2 investigated the relationship between staffing levels and
student achievement; questions 3 and 4 investigated the relationship between library elements
and student achievement, and question 5 investigated the way a combination of library elements
may be related to student achievement. Rejection of the null hypothesis for each of these
questions led to an investigation in research questions six and seven of the relationship between
staffing levels and library services.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/187/: accessed February 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .