Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 172
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Comparison of Bivariate Correlations, Certificated Staffing Levels and Total Staffing Levels with
Regularly Provided Library Services, Grade 4.
Library Service Certificated Staff Total Staffing Level
Level Pearson r Pearson r
Hours open .13** .47**
Total Technology .09** .38**
Total Library Services .18** .38**
**Correlation is significant at the .001 level
The consistent, positive correlations between staffing and services were seen at all three grade
levels, and at each level, total staffing levels tended to correlate more strongly with services than
did certificated staff levels, although those correlations were generally significant, too.
This trend did not hold at any grade level, though, for three services, which correlated
more strongly with certificated staffing levels than with total staffing levels: offering a program
of curriculum-integrated information literacy instruction; planning or conducting workshops for
teachers; and collaborating with teachers to develop, implement, and evaluate student learning.
One possible interpretation of this result is that these are all activities requiring professional
training and experience; in this case, the certificated staff hours are a more critical component
than the total staff hours in providing the service. Nevertheless, the significant correlations at all
three levels in both certificated and total staffing support previous research which shows that as
staffing levels rise, there tends to be a corresponding increase in the services the library program
provides (see Brandes, 1987; Didier, 1984; Gaver, 1962; Lance et al., 1999; Lance et al., 2000b;
Lance, Welborn & Hamilton-Pennell, 1993; Loertscher & Land, 1975; Loertscher et al., 1987;
McCracken, 2001; Rodney et al., 2002).
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/186/: accessed February 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .