Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 169
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school levels. All correlations were significant at p=.001; eight library services had Pearson r
values of greater than .60. Total library services correlated with certificated library staffing levels
at r = .70. At the high school level, in contrast to middle and elementary school, there was a
positive correlation between certificated and clerical staffing levels (r = .40).
In twenty-four of twenty-seven cases, library services correlated more strongly with total
library staffing than with certificated library staffing, and all library services correlated
significantly at p=.001. Three services--total library services, hours open, and total technology--
correlated with total staffing at or near r =.80; nine services correlated at r values greater than
.70. In the correlations between certificated library staff and library services, only total library
services reached an r value.70. See Table 67 for a summary.
Comparison of Bivariate Correlations, Certificated Staffing Levels and Total Staffing Levels with
Regularly Provided Library Services, Grade 11
Library Service Certificated Staff Total Staffing
Offered a program of curriculum-integrated
information literacy instruction
Informally instructed students in the use of resources
Planned or conducted workshops for teachers
Assisted school curriculum committee with
Collaborated with teachers to develop, implement, and
evaluate student learning two or more hours per week
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/183/: accessed February 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .