Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 164
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significant negative relationship between certificated staffing levels and clerical staffing hours
with an r value of-.27 (p <.001).
In bivariate correlations between library services and total library staffing, all
relationships were statistically significant atp <.001. Those relationships also tended to be
stronger than library services and certificated staffing hours, most notably in library hours (r
=.47), total technology (r = .38) and total services (r =.38). At the fourth grade level, data
support the idea that there is a positive relationship between staffing levels and library services
regularly offered. This data also supports the notion that total staffing levels are more strongly
associated with the level of services provided than solely certificated staffing levels. Table 65
provides a summary of results.
Comparison of Bivariate Correlations, Certificated Staffing Levels and Total Staffing Levels with
Regularly Provided Library Services, Grade 4.
Library Service Certificated Staff Total Staffing
Offered a program of curriculum-integrated
information literacy instruction
Informally instructed students in the use of
Planned or conducted workshops for
Assisted school curriculum committee with
Collaborated with teachers to develop,
implement, and evaluate student learning
two or more hours per week
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/178/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .