Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 162
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History CST scores. In both cases, Beta weights indicated that the library factor was a stronger
predictor of scores than other school variables; in fact, the library factor was stronger than either
school or community factors in predicting U.S. History CST scores. Table 64 provides a
summary of the R2 values in multiple regressions at each grade level.
AR2 Produced by Addition of Library Factor in Multiple Regressions
Grade Dependent Variable AR2
3 English Language Arts .002**
8 English Language Arts .02**
8 Social Studies .03**
11 English Language Arts .19**
11 U.S. History .21**
The null hypothesis, that student achievement does not vary in relationship to any combination
of library staffing levels and other library program elements, is rejected.
Statistically significant relationships in this study support earlier studies in which the
overall library program accounted for between 1 and 21% of the variance in test scores (see
Baughman, 2000; Lance et al., 2000a, 2002; Lance, Welborn & Hamilton-Pennell, 1993; Miller
et al., 2003; Rodney et al., 2002; Smith, 2001). At the middle school level, the change in R2
values with the addition of library factors into multiple regressions including school and
community variables produced results similar to those in Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) and
Colorado (Lance et al., 2000a). The R2 values at the high school level are among the highest
reported in studies of this kind.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/176/: accessed May 26, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .