Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 161
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Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting U.S. History CST
Scores, Grade 11
Variable B SE B
(Constant) 320.23 0.84 --
Community factor 16.26 0.84 .55**
School factor 9.34 0.84 .28**
(Constant) 320.11 0.69 --
Community factor 15.08 0.69 .47**
School factor 4.99 0.72 .16**
Library factor 15.24 0.72 .48**
Note. R2 = .35 for Step 1; AR2 =.21 for Step 2 (p <.001).
Summary and Discussion of Results for Research Question 5
Results to this question followed the established pattern. There was a statistically
significant but very weak effect at the elementary level; combined library elements accounted for
just 0.2% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores when community and school
factors were controlled for in a hierarchical regression. At the middle school level, the library
factor accounted for 2% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores and 3% of the
variance in social studies CST scores. At the high school level, the library factor accounted for
19% of the variance in English Language Arts CST scores and 21% of the variance in U.S.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/175/: accessed June 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .