Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 147
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or U.S. History CST scores had an r value of less than .32, p <.001, and only budget had r values
of less than .40. These results support previous research that these library elements contribute to
* Hours open (Baxter & Smalley, 2003; Burgin et al., 2003; Gaver, 1962; Rodney
et al., 2003; Smith, 2006)
* Collection size (Baumbach, 2003; Krashen, 1995; Krashen, 2004; Lance,
Hamilton-Pennell & Rodney, 2005; Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell, 2002;
McQuillan, 1998; Rodney et al., 2002, 2003; Smith, 2006; Squire, Applebee &
* Budget size (Baxter & Smalley, 2003; Bruning, 1994; Burgin et al., 2003; Greve,
1977; Hall-Ellis & Berry, 1995; Lance et al., 2002; Rodney et al., 2003; Smith,
* Technology available in the library (Baule, 1997; Lance et al., 2005; Oliver, 2003;
Rodney et al., 2003; Ryan, 2006; Smith, 2006).
Hos: Student Achievement, Staffing Levels and Other Library Program Elements
The fifth research question asks how student achievement varies, if at all, in relationship
to a combination of library program elements. The null hypothesis for this question, Hos, is that
student achievement does not vary in relationship to any combination of library staffing levels
and other library program elements.
To reduce the overall number of variables and address possible issues of
multicollinearity, all school and community variables were entered into a factor analysis with
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/161/: accessed March 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .