Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 145
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At the eighth grade level, all bivariate correlations between English Language Arts CST
scores and library program elements were significant. With each of the six partial correlations
controlling for school and community variables, significance remained for hours open and total
technology. The relationships with these two library variables were stronger than at the fourth
grade level; hours open r values ranged from .11 to .29; total technology r values ranged from
.12 to .24, p < .001. Collection size was significant in four of six partial correlations, while
budget was significant in three of six partial correlations. The strength of the significant
correlations for both these variables, though, was generally weak. For collection size, the r value
ranged from .07 to .20; for budget, r ranged from .09 to .12,p <.001.
Relationships between eighth grade social studies CST scores and library elements were
somewhat stronger. Each library program element was again significantly related to test scores in
bivariate correlations. Hours open and total technology were significant in all partial
correlations; r values for hours open ranged from .13 to .28, p < .001, and r values for total
technology ranged from .17 to .27, p < .001. Collection size and budget were significant in five
of six partial correlations; both were insignificant when controlling for average teacher salary.
Again, results were markedly different at the high school level. In all categories, there
were significant bivariate correlations between CST scores and library program elements at
grade 11, and significance remained when controlling for each of the school and community
variables in partial correlations. The strongest relationships were again in hours open and total
technology in correlations with both English Language Arts and U.S. History CST scores. In all
but one case, r values for hours open were above .50 across both tests in bivariate and partial
correlations; total technology r values ranged from .46 to .54, p <.001. There was a stronger
relationship between CST scores and collection size, with r values ranging from .40 to .53, p <
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/159/: accessed July 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .