Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 144
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correlations exceeded r = .50 in five of six cases, with a range ofr = .48 to r = .54, p < .001.
Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Library Program Elements and U.S. History CST Scores,
Control Hours Open Collection Size Budget Total Technology
None (bivariate .54** .46** .36** .51**
Parent education .53** .49** .37** .50**
Free and reduced lunch .54** .49** .38** .51**
Ethnicity .56** .53** .40** .53**
Percent English learners .57** .52** .40** .54**
Average teacher salary .51** .42** .33** .48**
Percent teachers fully .55** .47** .38** .51**
Summary and Discussion of Response to Research Question 4
In grades 4, 8 and 11, student achievement was significantly related to other library
program elements beyond staffing and services. As was the case with total staffing and library
services, as the grade level rose, the strength of the correlations increased. At the fourth grade
level, all bivariate and partial correlations were significant between English Language Arts CST
scores and the four library program elements. Although statistically significant, these
correlations were very weak, the strongest being a partial correlation between English Language
Arts CST scores and collection size, controlling for percent of English learners, at r =.13, p <
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/158/: accessed February 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .