Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 143
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significant correlations at the high school level, but the strength of these correlations was greater
for each library program element. The strongest correlation was between English Language
Arts CST scores and hours open; five of the six partial correlations had r values greater than .50;
the sixth had a value of r = .49, p <.001. See Table 47 for a summary of results.
Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Library Program Elements and English Language Arts CST
Scores, Grade 11
Control Hours Open Collection Size Budget Total Technology
None (bivariate .52** .44** .36** .49**
Parent education .52** .47** .36** .49**
Free and reduced lunch .52** .47** .37** .49**
Ethnicity .55** .52** .39** .52**
Percent English learners .57** .51** .40** .53**
Average teacher salary .49** .40** .32** .46**
Percent teachers fully .53** .45** .37** .50**
Results were similar in correlations between U.S. History CST scores and library
program elements at grade 11, with each library program element significantly correlated to the
CST score in all bivariate and partial correlations. As in the correlations with English Language
Arts CST scores, the strongest relationship was between test scores and hours open; partial
correlations using each of the six school and community controls resulted in r values greater than
.50, the highest being r = .57, p < .001. As shown in Table 48, Total technology partial
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/157/: accessed December 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .