Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 142
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significant in all the partial correlations. Partial correlations between social studies scores and
hours open ranged from r =.13 to r = .28, p < .001. Partial correlations with total technology
ranged in value from r =.17 to r = .27, p < .001. Both collection size and budget were
significant in each partial correlation except the one controlling for average teacher salary.
Significant partial correlations with collection size ranged from r = .08 to r = .25, p < .001.
Significant partial correlations with budget ranged from r = .09 to r =.15, p < .001 (see Table
Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Library Program Elements and Social Studies CST Scores,
Control Hours Open Collection Size Budget Total Technology
None (bivariate .20** .10** .09** .22**
Parent education .21** .13** .09** .17**
Free and reduced lunch .24** .25** .13** .25**
Ethnicity .25** .19** .15** .27**
Percent English learners .28** .19** .13** .26**
Average teacher salary .13** .04 .05 .17**
Percent teachers fully .18** .08** .09** .20**
**p < .001
In all categories, there were significant correlations between English Language Arts CST
scores and library program elements at grade 11. All relationships remained significant in partial
correlations with each of the school and community variables. Not only were there more
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/156/: accessed December 14, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .