Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 141
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At the eighth grade level, each library program element was significantly related to
English Language Arts CST scores in bivariate correlations. Significance persisted using each of
the six school and community controls in partial correlations involving both hours open and total
technology. Partial correlations with hours open ranged from r= .11 to r = .25. Partial
correlations with total technology ranged from r= .12 to r = .24. Significance values in each of
these correlations were less than .001. With collection size and budget, bivariate correlations
were significant but very weak (.05 and .06 respectively, p <.001); relationships to English
Language Arts CST scores strengthen in some partial correlations and fell to insignificance with
others. See Table 45 for results.
Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Library Program Elements and English Language Arts CST
Scores, Grade 8
Control Hours Open Collection Size Budget Total Technology
None (bivariate .16** .05** .06** .19**
Parent education .17** .07** .05 .12**
Free and reduced lunch .20** .20** .09** .21**
Ethnicity .23** .15** .12** .24**
Percent English learners .25** .15** .10** .22**
Average teacher salary .11** .00 .03 .14**
Percent teachers fully .14** .02 .06 .15*
**p < .001
In bivariate correlations with eighth grade social studies CST scores, each library
program again yielded significant results. Both hours open and total technology remained
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/155/: accessed June 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .