Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 140
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through the school library." Twelve technologies were listed as choices, including online
databases, library Web pages, Internet access, automated catalog and circulation, DVD's, audio
books, video collections, and integrated search tools. The total number of technologies indicated
on the original response was coded into a new category called "total technology," which was
used as a measure of overall technology in the library.
At the fourth grade, there were significant but weak correlations between English
Language Arts CST scores and all other library program elements, including hours open,
collection size, budget, and total technology. Though weak, the significance persisted when
partial correlations using school and community control variables were calculated. See Table 44.
Bivariate and Partial Correlations, Library Program Elements and English Language Arts CST
Scores, Grade 4
Control Hours Open Collection Size Budget Total Technology
None (bivariate .08** .08** .07** .11**
Parent education .09** .05** .04* .04*
Free and reduced lunch .08** .07** .05** .08**
Ethnicity .06** .07** .06** .08**
Percent English learners .11** .13** .08** .09**
Average teacher salary .05** .04* .06** .09**
Percent teachers fully .08** .07** .10** .09**
*p < .05, **p <.001.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/154/: accessed March 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .