Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 139
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connected to Todd and Kuhlthau's model and student achievement at the high school level range
from r = .20 p <.001 to r = .49, p <.001. See Appendix D for a summary of correlations
between elements of Todd and Kuhlthau's model and 11th grade student achievement scores.
With Loertscher's (2000) and Todd and Kuhlthau's (2004) models in mind, the entire
range of services the school library program provides contributes to student achievement. At the
high school level, the correlation between student achievement and total services was r =.51, p
<.001. Although correlations with other services were weak at both elementary and middle
school, the total services correlation for elementary was r =.14p <.0, and r = .24, p <.001 at
the middle school level. Although correlations do not indicate causality, the evidence is
consistent with the assertion that the instructional role of the school librarian contributes to
student achievement and lends support to a host of prior research (see Baughman, 2000;
Callison, 2004; Gehlkin, 1994; Didier, 1984; Haycock, 1992; Marchant, Broadway, Robinson &
Shields., 1984; Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000a, 2000b, 2002; Lance et al., 2005
Ho4: Student Achievement and Other Library Program Elements.
The fourth research question states, "How does student achievement vary, if at all, in
relationship to other library program elements?" The null hypothesis Ho4 was derived from this
question as follows: student achievement does not vary in relationship to other library program
Remaining library program elements for which there was data from the library survey
included hours open, collection size, budget, and technology available in the library. Data for
technology available in the library was taken from question 11 on the library survey (see
Appendix A), which asks, "Check one or more of the following technologies available in or
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/153/: accessed June 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .