Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 138
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English Language Arts CST scores and library services was very similar in strength to that of
U.S. History CST scores, which will be summarized here. The strongest bivariate correlations
included total services at r =.51, p <.001, providing teachers with information about new
resources, r = .49, p <.001, and informally instructed students in the use of resources, r = .47, p
<.001. Partial correlations between total services and U.S. History CST scores remained
significant when controlling for each school and community variable, ranging in strength from r
= .46, p < .001, controlling for average teacher salary and r = .53, p < .001 when controlling for
percentage of English learners.
The null hypothesis that student achievement does not vary in relationship to library staff
services offered, either independently or in combination, was rejected.
In Loertscher's (2000) model, the activities that the school librarian engages in related to
collaboration, reading, information literacy, and enhancing learning through technology are
instrumental in the library program's contribution to student achievement. At the high school
level, where nearly half the schools have a full-time, certificated librarian, the correlations
between student achievement and these activities ranged from r =.22 to r =.49. See Appendix C
for a summary of the correlations between school library elements from Loertscher's model and
1 1th grade student achievement scores.
Todd and Kuhlthau's (2004) model identifies these roles in terms of "dynamic agents of
learning, " and include resource agent, information literacy agent, knowledge construction
agent, academic achievement agent, independent reading and personal development agent,
technological agent, rescue agent, and individualized learning agent. Todd and Kuhlthau's
model suggests that activities lower in Loertscher's taxonomy also critically contribute to student
achievement, and this study supports that assertion. The correlations between activities
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/152/: accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .