Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 137
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the percent of teachers fully credentialed. Total library services correlated significantly bivariate
correlation with English Language Arts scores at r =.14, p <.001, and with partial correlations
when controlling for each of the school and community variables. The strength of these scores
ranged from r =.08, p <.001, when controlling for parent education level to r =.13, p <.001
when controlling for free and reduced lunch.
Again, the correlations between library services and student achievement were stronger at
the middle school than at the elementary school level. At the eighth grade level, there were also
fourteen services that were significantly related to English Language Arts CST scores, with the
three strongest being communicating proactively with principal, offering a program of
curriculum-integrated information literacy instruction, and total services, all at r =.19, p <.001.
Just one of the fourteen services did not remain significant in relationship to English Language
Arts CST scores when controlling for school and community variables in partial correlations.
Total services remained significant in all partial correlations, the strongest when controlling for
ethnicity at r =.23, p <.001.
Slightly stronger bivariate correlations between social studies CST scores and library
services were seen, the strongest being total services at r =.24, p <.001, and informally
instructing students in the use of resources and providing reference assistance to students and
teachers, both at r =.22, p <.001. All but two of sixteen services remained statistically
significant in partial correlations with each school and community variable as a control, and
library services remained significant in these partial correlations with r values ranging from .20
to .28, p <.001.
At the high school level, in 21 of 22 categories there was a statistically significant
relationship between library services and student achievement. The relationship between
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/151/: accessed January 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .