Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 124
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other than reading scores (see Greve, 1977; Hall-Ellis & Berry, 1995; Jenkins, 2000; Mancall,
1985; Martin, 1996).
This finding also supports the research (Loertscher, Ho & Bowie, 1987) and theoretical
model proposed by Loertscher (2000), which indicate that for a school library program to have a
significant impact on student achievement, adequate levels of both clerical and certificated staff
are essential (see also Beaird, 1999; Callison, 2004; Didier, 1984; Farwell, 1998; Gaver, 1962;
Lance et al., 1999; Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000b, 2002; Lance, Welborn &
Hamilton-Pennell, 1993; Loertscher & Land, 1975; McCracken, 2001; Underwood, 2004).
Results from this study indicate that as certificated library staff increases, test scores tend to
increase. But in the absence of clerical support, certificated staff is left to run the warehouse
functions of the library and has little or no time to collaborate with teachers on lessons and
activities that raise achievement. This study also indicates that at the middle school and high
school level, as total library staffing increased, test scores tended to increase.
Ho3: Student Achievement and Library Staff Services Offered
The third research question, "How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to
library staff services offered, either independently or in combination?" formed the null
hypothesis Ho3: Student achievement does not vary in relationship to library staff services
offered, either independently or in combination.
In the California Department of Education school library survey, two multi-part questions
assess staff services. Question 18 asks, "Which of the following services and/or programs were
regularly provided in the 2006-2007 school year?" Twenty-one services are described, as listed
in Figure 5.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/138/: accessed March 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .