Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 123
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teacher salary to r =.60, p <.001 when controlling for percentage of English learners. A
summary of the bivariate correlations from all three levels can be seen in Table 33.
Bivariate Correlations, LMS Staffing and Total Staffing, Grades 4, 8 and 11
Grade CST Test LMS Staffing Total Staffing
4 English Language Arts .06** -.04*
8 English Language Arts .00 .12**
8 Social Studies .07* .19**
11 English Language Arts .44** .54**
11 U.S. History .45** .56**
*p <.05, **p <.001.
Consistent with results from question 1, the strength of correlations tended to increase
with grade level. Additionally, a comparison of correlations indicated at the middle and high
school level that total staffing accounted for more of the variance in scores than did certificated
staffing alone. Results from this question are supported by previous studies linking total staffing
to higher test scores, including studies from Illinois (Lance et al., 2005), Florida (Baumbach,
2003), Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003), New Mexico. (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell,
2002), North Carolina (Burgin et al., 2003), Pennsylvania (Lance et al., 2000b), and Wisconsin
The similarities between English Language Arts and social studies CST score
correlations with staffing levels at the eighth grade, and English Language Arts and U.S. History
CST scores and staffing levels at the eleventh grade are also consistent with previous studies
showing positive correlations between library staffing and measures of student achievement
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/137/: accessed February 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .