Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 122
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Summary and Discussion for Research Question 2
Overall results indicate a positive significant relationship between total staffing levels
and student achievement, indicating a rejection of the null hypothesis. At the fourth grade level,
there was a significant negative correlation between English Language Arts CST scores and total
staffing, r =-.04, p =.02, but the significance of the correlation disappeared or the direction of
the relationship became positive in partial correlations controlling for community variables, the
strongest positive value being r =.12, p <.001, when controlling for parent education. All of
these correlations were very weak and would not alone lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis
that student achievement does not vary in relationship to total library staffing levels.
At the eighth grade level, though, bivariate correlations between total library staffing and
both English Language Arts and social studies CST scores were significant at r =.12, p <.001
and r =.19, p <.001 respectively. The strength of these relationships tended to increase with
partial correlations controlling for school and community variables. The strongest partial
correlations for both English Language Arts and social studies controlled for ethnicity, at r = .22,
p <.001 and r = .28,p <.001 respectively.
At the eleventh grade, bivariate correlations between total library staffing levels and CST
scores were again stronger than at middle or elementary levels at r = .54, p <.001 for English
Language Arts CST scores and r = .56, p <.001 for U.S. History scores. The strength of those
associations remained in partial correlations with school and community variables. For English
Language Arts, those correlations ranged from r =.49, p <.001 when controlling for average
teacher salary to r = .59, p <.001 when controlling for percentage of English learners. For U.S.
History, those partial correlations ranged from r =.52, p <.001 when controlling for average
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/136/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .