Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 119
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At the eighth grade level, the relationship between English Language Arts CST scores
and total staffing was significant at r = .12, p < .001. This relationship remained significant in
partial correlations with all school and community variables used as controls. The relationship
was strongest when controlling for ethnicity at r = .22, p < .001. Table 29 summarizes the
Partial Correlation, Total Staff Hours, English Language Arts CST Scores, and School and
Community Variables, Grade 8
Parent Education Level .09**
Free and Reduced Lunch .18**
Percentage English Learners .19**
Avg. Teacher Salary .07*
Percentage Fully Credentialed Teachers .09**
*p <.05, **p <.001
Correlations between social studies CST scores and total staffing hours at the eighth
grade level were significant at r =.19, p < .001. This positive relationship persisted in all partial
correlations using school and community variables. All of the community variables strengthened
the relationship, the strongest of these being ethnicity, at r = .28, p <.001. Both average teacher
salary and percent fully credentialed teachers weakened the relationship, the weakest being
average teacher salary at r = .12, p < .001. See table 30 for a summary of results.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/133/: accessed March 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .