Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 118
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Ho2: Student Achievement and Combined Staffing Levels
The second research question was, "How does student achievement vary, if at all, in
relationship to the levels of combined certificated and clerical staffing in school library media
programs?" This question formed the null hypothesis Ho2, that student achievement does not
vary in relationship to the levels of combined certificated and clerical staffing in school library
media programs, for the next analysis.
At the fourth grade, the bivariate correlation between English Language Arts and total
staffing hours was statistically significant but weak, at r = -.04, p = .02. The significant negative
correlation remained when controlling for average teacher salary at r = -.06, p < .001, and for
percent of teachers fully credentialed, at r = -.04, p < .03. This relationship was no longer
significant when factoring for parent education level and was positive at r = .12, p < .001 when
controlling for percent of students eligible for free and reduced lunch and percent of English
learners at r = .04, p = .04. See table 28 a summary of these results.
Partial Correlation, Total Staff Hours, English Language Arts CST Scores, and School and
Community Variables, Grade 4
Parent Education Level .00
Free and Reduced Lunch .12 *
Percentage English Learners .04*
Avg. Teacher Salary -.06**
Percentage Fully Credentialed Teachers -.04*
*p <.05, **p <.001
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/132/: accessed June 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .