Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 117
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Summary and Discussion for Research Question 1
In all but one case, there was a statistically significant correlation between CST scores
and certificated LMS staffing (See Table 27). Partial correlations between CST scores and LMS
staffing using school and community variables as controls generally strengthened or did not
change those relationships. These positive correlations are consistent with results of prior studies
in Illinois (Lance, Hamilton-Pennell & Rodney, 2005), Florida (Baumbach, 2003), Iowa
(Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-Pennell, 2002), Michigan (Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-Pennell,
2003), Alaska (Lance et al., 1999), North Carolina (Burgin, Bracy & Brown, 2003), Ontario
(Ontario Library Association, 2006), Minnesota (Baxter & Smalley, 2003), and Wisconsin
(Smith, 2006). While the correlations are weak at both the elementary and middle school, the
bivariate and partial correlations found at the high school level were stronger than those in any of
the other studies mentioned here. These findings also support the models of school library
programs proposed by Loertscher (2000) and Todd & Kuhlthau (2004), which emphasize the
presence of certificated library staff in support of school-wide student achievement.
The null hypothesis that student achievement does not vary in relationship to the levels of
certificated staffing in school library media programs is rejected.
Summary of Bivariate Correlations, CST Scores and LMS Staffing
Grade Test r
4 English Language Arts .06**
8 English Language Arts .00
8 Social Studies .07 *
11 English Language Arts .44" *
11 U.S. History .45**
*p <.05, **p <.001
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/131/: accessed January 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .