Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 114
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At the eighth grade level, the relationship between certificated staffing and English
Language Arts scores was not statistically significant (r =.00, p=.99). As seen in Table 23, a
positive significant relationship was shown when controlling for free and reduced lunch at r
.10, p < .001, and for ethnicity, r= .16, p < .001. The relationship between ELA scores and
certificated staffing was not significant when controlling for the other four school and
Partial Correlation, Certificated Staff Hours, English Language Arts CST Scores, and School
and Community Variables, Grade 8
Parent Education Level .01
Free and Reduced Lunch .10**
Percentage English Learners .04
Avg. Teacher Salary -.04
Percentage Fully Credentialed Teachers .01
There was, however, a weak but significant positive relationship between certificated
staffing and social studies CST scores at the middle school level, with r = .07, p =.001. When
controlling for school and community variables, the association strengthened in every case
except for average teacher salary, which was not statistically significant. Controlling for ethnicity
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/128/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .