Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 107
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The purpose of this descriptive, non-experimental study was to examine the relationships
between school library media programs and student achievement in California's comprehensive
public schools. Student achievement was measured by the school level mean scaled scores on the
California Standards Tests (CST) in English Language Arts at grades 4, 8 and 11; in Social
Studies in grade 8; and in U.S. History in grade 11. Data about school library media programs
was obtained through the California Department of Education School Library Survey, a 19
question survey completed online by a majority of the state's public schools. Data about
community and school variables, including education level of parents, percent of students
eligible for the free and reduced lunch program, ethnicity, percentage of English learners,
average salary of teachers, and percentage of teachers fully credentialed, were obtained from the
Academic Performance Index and the School Accountability Report Card, for which public
schools are required to submit information annually.
Research questions were considered in the form of null hypotheses as follows:
Ho: Student achievement does not vary in relationship to the levels of certificated
staffing in school library media programs.
H02: Student achievement does not vary in relationship to the levels of combined
certificated and clerical staffing in school library media programs.
H3. Student achievement does not vary in relationship to library staff services offered,
either independently or in combination.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/121/: accessed January 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .