Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 104
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data sources contain school level information identifiable by unique school codes. Data files for
the CST scores were disaggregated first by grade and then by test; these disaggregated data were
then combined with demographic data from the API scores and school data from SARC; these
were then combined with data from the library survey, all matched by school code. The analysis
unit was the California public school at the elementary, middle and high school levels. The
targeted population was those schools for which a completed survey, the relevant CST mean
scaled score, the demographic data from the API, and the school data from SARC was available.
Schools that did not have data from all four sources were eliminated from the study.
This study employed both descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate correlation
analysis was used to assess the direction and strength of relationship between pairs of variables
(e.g., staffing levels and library services provided; mean scaled scores on English/Language Arts
tests) and to assist in factor analysis used to combine variables for data reduction. For questions
1-4, bivariate correlations were used to determine the direction and strength of relationship
between the dependent and independent variables. Where significant relationships were found,
both partial correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to examine the
relationship between school library media program variables and student achievement when
accounting for community and school variables. Partial correlations are useful because they
provide a correlation between two variables with the influence of a third variable removed
(Hinkle, Wiersma & Jurs, 2003). In this study, partial correlations and multiple regression were
used to account for the following community and school variables: education level of parents,
percent of students eligible for the free and reduced lunch program, ethnicity, percentage of
English learners, average salary of teachers, and percentage of teachers fully credentialed.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/118/: accessed May 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .