Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 102
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study affirms this claim. When tracked through five years of elementary school at twenty
Baltimore city public schools, students who had moved had lower test scores, but when
controlling for students' socio-economic status and prior academic performance, test score
differences were no longer significant at p < .05. Wright's (1999) study of third and fourth
graders in 33 Midwestern, urban schools concluded that, while mobility significantly correlates
with student achievement, it is confounded with other much stronger predictors-specifically,
ethnicity and poverty level-and that it therefore holds little predictive power. Heinlein and
Shinn (2000) found that most student mobility studies did not control for prior student
achievement. In their own study of 764 New York City sixth-grade students, Heinlein and Shinn
(2000) found that, when controlling for students' achievement at the third grade, mobility after
the third grade was not related to students' achievement scores in the sixth grade. There was a
weak, though significant negative relationship between student achievement at the sixth grade
and mobility before the third grade. The authors conclude from their study that early mobility is
more disruptive to achievement than later mobility. The lack of consistent results from the
studies mentioned suggested mobility would not be a reliable control for this study.
Data Collection and Human Subjects Considerations
This study used four sources of data: the California Department of Education School
Library Survey results from 2006-2007; the 2007 CST scores for grades 4, 8 and 11; the
demographic data available through the 2007 Academic Progress Index (API) scores, and school
data from the School Accountability Report Card (SARC). The analysis unit was the California
public school at the elementary, middle and high school levels. The targeted population was
those schools for which a completed survey, the relevant CST mean scaled score, the
demographic data from the API, and the school data from the SARC are available.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/116/: accessed May 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .