Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 100
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the two models, particularly in terms of the types of services regularly offered by a school library
CDE Library Survey Todd & Kuhlthau (2004) Loertscher (2000)
S Offered a program of Literacy Development Agent: LMS Information literacy: "As
curriculum-integrated "engages students in an active and collaborative projects are planned
information literacy instruction meaningful search process, enabling with teachers...attention is given to
them to explore, formulate and focus providing research strategies at the
their searches" time of need."
Knowledge Construction Agent:
LMS "develops information literacy
scaffolds for engaging students with
information in meaningful ways."
* Informally instructed students Resource Agent: "The teacher- Individual reference assistance
in the use of resources librarian provides instructional (Level 3): The LMS "may at times
interventions by guiding students in deliver the information directly to
* Helped students and teachers their information choices through the the user but will continually work to
find and use resources outside .,
find and use resources outside effective use of these resources." help patrons gain the skills they need
to find and use information
Rescue Agent: "The library is themselves"
* Facilitated interlibrary loan for emseves
students and teachers opportunistic, responding to the
multiple needs that arise from
* Provided reading, listening, Independent Reading and Personal Individual reference assistance
and viewing guidance for Development Agent: "The school (level 3) "includes reading, viewing
students library plays a role in fostering and listening advisory services for
independent reading." students and teachers."
* Provided instruction on The library program provides Enhancing Learning Through
Internet searching and research students with "up-to-date software Technology (level 8): LMS
across multiple media. Lessons must "realizes that networks and
* Provided access to online go beyond teaching the effective use computers... (and) other
library catalog and circulation..
library catalog and circulation of software to include technical technologies...only provide
* Provided Internet access for troubleshooting (disk, printing, potential to enhance learning...(The
students in the library Internet access) and problem-solving LMS) demonstrates and encourages
skills." methods to exploit technology" to
* Provided electronic access to a enhance teaching and learning.
resource sharing network
Figure 4. Alignment of the CDE library survey and theoretical models.
California schools provide data for the Academic Performance Index annually, including
the percentage of minority students, the percentage of students in the Free or Reduced Lunch
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/114/: accessed February 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .