Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 98
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it also determines if the items are measuring the content standards as appropriate for the testing
population. Reliability analyses on the CSTs consistently yields reliability measures of between
.91 and .95 for the English/language arts and social studies tests, considered highly reliable
(Educational Testing Service, 2007).
The independent variables from school library media programs were taken from the
California Department of Education School Library Survey, administered annually as an online
survey by the state school library consultant, who works within the CDE. All public schools are
required by California Education Code 18122 to respond annually to this survey, although there
are no consequences for failing to respond. The survey includes 19 questions including type of
library, hours the library is open, amount of certificated and clerical staff hours per week,
number of books in the collection, average copyright date of books in a given section,
technologies available in or through the school library, budget for print and non-print collection
development, funding sources, type of scheduling, program services offered, and databases most
frequently used by students. See Appendix A for the complete survey.
According to Barbara Jeffus, California's School Library Consultant to the CDE, and
John McGinnis, the California School Library Association's Vice President of Governmental
Relations, the survey was first administered for the 1998-1999 school year and was developed
by the CDE, San Jose State University, and the California School Library Association, using
many of the questions from Brandes' 1987 California study, which was itself based upon the
U.S. Department of Education's Center for Statistics national library survey instrument (Brandes,
1987). The new survey instrument added questions based on the research by Miller and Shontz
(1996, 1997, 1998) about indicators for successful school libraries (B. Jeffus & J. McGinnis,
personal communication, November 17, 2007).
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/112/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .