Newsmap. Monday, May 25, 1942 : week of May 15 to May 22 Side: 1 of 2
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ARMY ORIENTATION COURSE
Prepared from public sources of information
Axis and Axis Occupied
Relations with Axis Broken \
B^BgBB g Relations with Axis and
United Nations Maintained \ \
Axis Hunts Shangri La
President reveals Doolittle led Tokyo raid
The Axis radios still hunted Shangri La last week. Well they
might for they had it on the word of the President of the
United States that a certain Brig. Gen. "Jimmy" Doolittle
conducted a "little expedition" from there and was now safely
back from that mythical place.
The "little expedition" was the April 18th raid on Japan.
The fact that it was directed by the noted speed-flyer, and
details of the attack were revealed when Doolittle appeared
at the President's Office last
week. There in a surprise
ceremony in the presence of
Gen. Marshall, Army Chief of K
Staff, Lt. Gen. Arnold, Chief
of the Air Force, and Mrs.
Doolittle, the President pinned
the Congressional Medal of
Honor to the daring flyer's
shirt. Seventy-nine officers
and men who made up the
raiding squadron of B-25-B
twin-motored North American
medium bombers were awarded
the Distinguished Service
Cross. Doolittle did much
Cutting a swath of destruction 40 miles long and 5 to 20
miles wide, not one of the planes was damaged enough by
the surprised anti-aircraft and fighter protection to prevent
their safe arrival at their destination. Doolittle declined to
name the destination or takeoff point. He would not discuss
the Soviet announcement shortly after the raid that an American
plane landed on Soviet territory and that the crew was
Doolittle had high praise for the men who flew the specially
equipped bombers without knowing Japan was the objective.
The crew trained especially for the mission for weeks, even
before leaving the United States.
Sweeping in over Japan at housetop height the planes were
difficult targets for anti-aircraft guns but were exposed to any
machine guns that lay along the line of flight.
Each plane had an assigned target for its stick of four bombs.
Approaching the objective they climbed to 1500 feet to be safe
from the effect of their own bombs and as soon as they were
released returned to their previous low level.
Direct hits left a nearly completed cruiser or battleship near
Tokyo in flames. At Nagoya the Mitsubishi aircraft factory
was strewn with incendiary bombs. Steel works, oil refineries
More Yanks in Ireland
Arrival raises hopes for invasion
The largest contingent of American troops to cross the Atlantic
landed at the familiar "Somewhere in Northern Ireland" last
week after a passage in which one correspondent reported the
convoy had to "push the periscopes down."
A credit to the top-notch protection afforded by the protecting
screen of destroyers and planes in the fast voyage over
was the fact that the enemy did not make a major attack. Anything
even sniffing slightly of u-boat presence was blasted out
of the high seas.
Correspondents noting that the Force, which took several
days to unload from their transports, landed with complete
supplies including tanks and artillery, pointed out that it was
obvious the Americans had not arrived merely to protect
It was further disclosed in Northern Ireland that U. S.
Artillerymen started intensive study of British field guns. This
was undertaken in view of the Allied aim to have Americans
and British function as a team if necessary.
U. S. Gunners practicing with the famous British 25pounders
which checked Nazi Marshal Rommel in Libya were
reported to have equalled already the British records.
Groups of U. S. Officers were also being selected to attend
the British Battle School.
Following announcement of the arrival of the troops, President
Roosevelt served notice to the Axis, through the medium
of his Press Conference, that these troops were merely another
contingent of many who will go to Europe.
FTi~Axis People ruble
9m )Discontent increasing throughout Europe
American newshawks arrived in Lisbon from Italy and Germany
last week with other U. S. citizens for exchange with
Axis nationals. They told of a disheartened, embittered Italian
people, of a Germany where life daily grows grimmer and
They estimated that Hitler's firing squads have killed
400,000 Europeans in the process of looting conquered areas
of $36,000,000,000 in cash and goods. But sabotage and resistance
War with the United States spread foreboding far and
wide among the Axis peoples, the reporters said.
They disclosed that the ferocity of recent British air
attacks, especially at Rostock and Liibeck, has shocked and
stunned the German public.
Nor has the high cost of the Winter fighting in Russia been
successfully concealed. Hotels have been converted into hospitals
and even private homes must house the overflowing
numbers of wounded. Deterioration of economic conditions
is reported visible on all sides.
Yet the newsmen emphasized that the capacity of the German
citizen to endure has not yet reached the breaking point.
In Italy the reporters told of rising opposition to the war.
The people there are firmly under Fuehrer Adolf Hitler's
thumb, according to the journalists, but increased privations
and respect for the United States are taking their toll.
Many Italian people are described as ready to rally to the
United Nations on the day American and British troops land
on Italian soil.
Axis Battles (hetniks
Yugoslavs charge Hungarian atrocities
Revolt in Hitler's Balkans appears to have flared to proportions
of full scale war. The Axis was reported sending 24 divisions
into the Serbian mountains to crush Yugoslav Chetniks.
Meanwhile from Yugoslavia came charges of revolting
atrocities committed by Hungary.
Apparently determined to wipe out the guerilla forces of
General Draja Mikhailovitch, the Axis was said to be using.
20 Italian and 4 German divisions, and Hungarian and Bulgarian
Fighting in the Batchka district, south of the Hungarian
border, was called some of the bloodiest in Yugoslavia's history.
Yugoslav charges were relayed by their government in
London to Secretary of State Cordell Hull and alleged the
murder of 100,000 Serbs, men, women and children. Details
related stories of murder, rape, starvation and arson in concentration
pointed out that it would take at least six months to reach
On China's southwestern frontier, pushing up from Burma,
the Japs were shoved back in Western Yunnan Province, as
the Chinese troops under Lt. Gen. Joseph W. Stillwell drove
the invaders back toward the Burma border.
Stillwell's troops advanced along an ancient caravan road
to recapture Kanlanchai, chief railway town, and large amounts
of war material.
Last week saw the possible beginning of the summer rainy
season and heavy downpours drenched the Southwestern
Burma-Yunnan battlefield. The Chinese looked to the rain
as an ally which might fill the road with landslides, wash
out bridges, fill Japanese camps with malaria and hold up the
invaders in the mountainous country.
Fighting on the west side of the Salween River north of the
Burma Road, Chinese troops administered a series of defeats
to the northward moving Japanese columns and drove them
back to Lungling.
Further west British troops in Northwest Burma were reported
holding positions in the mountains next to the Indian
United States Army Air Force flyers, based in India, and the
"Flying Tigers" distinguished themselves again during the
week in damaging raids. The U. S. bombers delivered a smashing
daylight attack at the big Myitkyina airport at the same
time that the Japs bombed Mofussil in the eastern part of
India's Northeastern Assam Province.
Mexico Moves to Brink
War declaration close after ship sinking
uthess submarine warfare pursued by the Axis moved
Mexico to the point of declaring war after one of its plainly
marked merchantmen went down under attack in the Gulf of
Mexico and two others were reported sunk off Brazil.
A Foreign Office spokesman announced that a protest sent
to Germany, Italy and Japan was not even granted the courtesy
of reception. Mexico was one of the Latin-American
Nations to break diplomatic relations with the Axis.
Losses of American-flag vessels were last week reported
already greater than for the entire period of the last war. This
bad news was brightened somewhat by the promise of Admiral
Land, Chief of the War Shipping Administration, that new
merchant ships would be coming off at the rate of three a
day this fall.
He declared that 800 new merchantmen would be conT
structed this year. Thirty-six were delivered in April he
reported, and this month he expected fifty-plus.
Characteristic of the super-blows being struck on the production
lines was the scheduled launching of 27 merchant
vessels in a 24-hour period, last Friday, in commemoration
of Maritime Day.
Shifting the emphasis of the offensive northward from Burma
to China the Japanese invaders apparently launched a fullscale
offensive south of Shanghai against Chekiang Province.
Large numbers of Nipponese transports suddenly appeared
last week in the Min River, below Foochow, on the coast, and
landed troops. A military spokesman in Chungking said the
Japs were using 80,000 men in the Chekiang drive with 40,000
actively engaged on the front line.
Chekiang Province is on the southeastern coast of China
between Shanghai and Hong Kong, both of which are occupied
by the Japanese. The importance of the drive into this
area is that it would take over land that might be used as air
bases for bombing attacks on the Japanese Islands.
The main fighting was on a 200-mile front about 50 miles
from the Allied Base of Kinhwa south of Shanghai.
At the same time, about 250 miles to the west, halfway
to Chungking from Chekiang, a second important front was
developing. At Nanchang the Japanese massed some 30,000
troops for possible attack on the important town of Changsha.
They had previously suffered heavy defeat there.
The importance of these offensives lay in the possibility
that they were designed to knock Chungking out of the war.
This was doubted in the Chinese capital where observers
[AGandhi Still Passive
Would oppose scorched earth against Japs
With the hot breath of the Jap invader hot on India's boundary,
Mohandas K. Gandhi, pacifist spiritual leader of Indian nationalism,
declared last week
that he would oppose application
of the scorched-earth
policy in his country.
The policy, widely and suecessfully
used by the Russians
when they retreated before
the Germans and by the
United Nations against the
Japanese, was termed by the
Indian leader "ruinous, suicidal
He told a press conference
I rpu ~~~~in Bombay that "If the enemy
helps himself to crops, which
I may be forced to leave beGandhi
opposes cause I don't choose to defend
them, I don't mind taking the risk of the enemy fattening
on my crops."
n^Spain Would Trade
Send barter mission to Buenos Aires
A Spanish trade mission arrived in Argentina last week ostensibly
to negotiate details of a barter pact, involving roughly
$40,000,000, which was signed in Madrid last March. Under
the pact Argentina would send wheat, leather, some frozen
meats and other agricultural food products to Spain in return
for manufactured products. Both Spanish and Argentinean
sources have admitted that Spain's productive capacity is not
great enough to permit the Franco regime to trade with Argentina
on even terms on the scale of the barter pact.
Two previous barter deals left Argentina with a credit of
$36,000,000 while Spain sent nothing. Some suspicion was
reported in Buenos Aires that part of the exports to Spain
might pass on to Italy and Germany and some Axis factories
might produce some of the goods to be imported to Argentina.
Both Washington and London, when the agreement was
announced, reported that they were aware of this previously
and were prepared to deal with it.
Attack on Kharkov
Red Drive overshadows Nazi Kerch push
After ten days of what may prove to have been one of the
bloodiest and most decisive battles of the Russian Front, Red
army and Nazi infantrymen were reported locked in combat,
midst the wreckage of their mechanized equipment, on the
battle line before the industrial city of Kharkov.
For days, throughout the 100-mile sector of the Russian
offensive, Marshal Timoshenko's advancing armored forces
clanked their heavy steel bodies against Nazi tank units. In
desperation German Marshal Feder von Bock hurled his armored
giants into battle in successive waves of counterattacks,
and a total of over 1,000 tanks were claimed destroyed by
North American B-25 bombers like this dazzled Tokyo's throngs
and storage centers, munition plants and dumps all felt the
weight of American bombs as the flyers hit Kanagawa, Yokohama,
Yokesuki, Nagasaki, Kobe and Osaka.
Targets were all definite military objectives, Doolittle reported.
Bombs were dropped within sight of the Emperor's
Palace and that, too, might easily have been bombed had not
Doolittle given specific orders against it.
The American airmen were amazed at the weak resistance
offered. All but a few of the enemy's craft, some Zero fighters,
were slower than the B-25's, and their pilots inexperienced.
A school of "Tin fish" ready for their deadly work.
her wounds at Trondheim after their escape from the French
port of Brest in February through the English Channel and the
With mounting fury the RAF struck into the heart of industrial
Germany and disclosed that 800 planes a night were
ferrying bombs to the Nazis.
Mannheim, the German chemical, armament and engine
building center whose docks on the Rhine River are constantly
loaded with war products from the industrial Ruhr Valley
flared last week under the load of 40,000 incendiary bombs
which the RAF heavy four-motored Stirling bombers delivered.
The incendiaries started hundreds of fires which served
as targets for the explosive loads carried by the following
Halifax, Lancaster, Manchester, Wellington and Hampden,
Bad bombing weather had caused almost a week's lull in
the attacks and, while most of the bombers hit Mannheim, some
went over St. Nazaire, a Nazi submarine base, and fighter
planes continuously raked airports in Holland and Northern
Evidence that Marshal Goering was able to increase his
western air force or that by popular discontent he was forced to
cut down recent RAF superiority over France and Germany
was seen in the suddenly increased opposition by German
fighters. This resulted in numerous heavy combats with losses
running high on both sides.
Doolittle came to Washington February 9th to plan the
raid. He was then a Lieutenant Colonel in the Reserve. President
Roosevelt appointed him a temporary Brigadier General
the day after the raid.
n^Shadow on Australia
Japs reinforcing invasion bases in north
The shadow of invasion weighed heavily on Australia and
United Nations Forces in the Southwest Pacific drove preparations
in anticipation of another Japanese attempt such as ended
in the Allied victory on the Coral Sea.
Allied and Japanese planes cautiously scouted each others
bases with occasional stabbing raids, but for all it was the lull
that seemed to precede a great storm.
The Japanese were known to have reinforced their bases
on New Guinea and massing their invasion forces on a 1700mile
arc of bases north of the Continent.
A volcanic eruption of Mauna Loa which for two weeks
threatened the important harbor of Hilo on the Island of Hawaii
was revealed by the Army last week after the eruption subsided
and the information was considered no longer of value
to the enemy. The eruption started April 26.
Twice Army planes bombed the molten flow of lava to
divert its course when it seemed about to do serious damage
to the city of 20,000.
Although the eruption was common knowledge on the
Islands the Army banned publication until activity of the
mountain ceased and the great jets of fire no longer provided
a night beacon for possible Japanese raiders.
Shell cases pile up in a Moscow factory for the Eastern Front
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[United States]. Army Orientation Course. Newsmap. Monday, May 25, 1942 : week of May 15 to May 22, poster, May 25, 1942; [Washington, D.C.]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc980/m1/1/: accessed December 14, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.