The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It Page: 7
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Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses.
a severe attack on fall wheat in spring or on young spring wheat.
The only exception in the appearance of infested young plants is in
the case of the hard wheats, whose foliage is naturally of a darker
color, but the erect position will still enable the
observer to detect the infestation. Of course,
later on the infested plants change to yellow
and then brown, but the darker color and rank
growth of leaf always precede this.
In the winter-wheat regions of this country
the Hessian fly usually has two principal gen-
erations annually. In the South the two gener-
ations are the most widely separated, while in
the North, in the regions of spring-wheat grow-
ing, one generation seems to follow the other FIa. 4.-Egg of Hessian
in quick succession. fly, greatly enlarged;
section of leaf of wheat,
Throughout the winter wheat-growing sec at right, showing eggs
tions the fly passes the winter in the young as usually deposited,
wheat, mostly in the resting or "flaxseed " less enlarged.
stage, but in mild winters to some extent as larvae from two-thirds to
In spring (from March in Georgia and South Carolina to May in
Michigan) the flies escape from the "flaxseeds" in these young
plants, deposit their eggs on the wheat (fig.
4), and the young from these develop to
"flaxseeds" (fig. 5) before harvest, passing
the summer in the stubble. During some
seasons and in certain localities there oc-
casionally appears just before harvest what
has by some been considered a "supplemen-
tary" second brood of flies, consisting of a
fractional part of the spring brood, the de-
velopment of which has been delayed.
In autumn the order of appearance of flies
is reversed. In northern Michigan the flies
of the fall generation may be found, under
FIG. 5.-Hessian fly "flax- normal meteorological conditions, during the
seeds" on young wheat. last days of August and first days of Sep-
tember. In Georgia and South Carolina,
under the same conditions, it may be the last of November or the
first of December before they have all left the stubble. Thus has
this insect adapted itself to the prolonged southern summer, during
- The so-called " flaxseed " of the Hessian fly is described in detail on page 9.
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Walton, William Randolph, 1873-1952. The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It, pamphlet, 1924; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97227/m1/7/: accessed February 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.