The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It Page: 4
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Farmers' Bulletin 1083.
Columbia. Outside of America, it is known in North Africa, West-
ern Asia, Europe, Great Britain, and New Zealand.
The map (fig. 1) shows the distribution of the insect in the
United States. The common name, " Hessian fly," was bestowed
upon this insect long ago by Americans, because of its depredations
on Long Island, N. Y., in 1779, in the vicinity of Lord Howe's
encampment of three years before. On the supposition that the
pest had been brought from their native country in the straw used
for their bedding by the Hessian mercenaries who constituted a
part of this army, it was given the obnoxious name of "Hessian
fly." The pest undoubtedly was imported, probably from some
trans-Atlantic country, some time during the latter half of the eight-
NATURE OF INJURY.
The Hessian fly injures wheat and other plants by extracting the
juices of the young growing plants and by weakening the stems of
the older wheat near the joints and causing it to become " straw-
fallen " shortly before harvest.
The most obvious damage is caused by the maggot or larva of the
spring generation, which lodges between the leaf sheath and the
stem above a joint. Frequently several maggots locate above the
same joint. The maggots weaken the stem, causing it to become
shrunken at their point of contact with it. As the plant grows it may
become so weakened at the place where the fly is developing that it
chinery. .In Map showing distribution ofny cases the infested straw, instead of producing ates.
pljuipces o the young growing plants and by weakengring the stems of
plump head, produces one containing shriveled grain. The heads
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Walton, William Randolph, 1873-1952. The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It, pamphlet, 1924; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97227/m1/4/: accessed January 16, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.