Lathes Page: 2
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1-3 AIR CORPS
c. Lathes are made in various sizes, the size being determined by
the diameter of work that can be swung in it and by the over-all
length of the bed. The swing is measured in inches and the bed
is measured in feet.
2. Nomenclature.-The lathe is composed of five essential
features: bed, headstock, tailstock, carriage, and feeding and thread-
ing mechanisms. (See fig. 1.)
a. The bed is the main body of the lathe upon which are machined
the ribbed portions known as ways. These ways afford alinement
and bearing surface for the headstock, carriage, and tailstock.
b. The headstock is made up of the headstock casting, main spindle
and bearings, necessary mechanism for obtaining various spindle
speeds, and a series of gears used to transmit motion from the spindle
to the feeding or thread-cutting mechanism.
c. The tailstock is mounted on the ways and is designed to be
clamped at any point on the bed. It is provided with a sliding
spindle operated by a handwheel. The tail spindle is also fitted
with a center called the "dead" center. The tailstock may be adjusted
laterally (toward or away from the operator) by means of adjusting
d. The carriage consists of the saddle, which can be made to slide
along the ways by hand or power feed, and the apron fastened to the
saddle at the front of the bed. The function of the carriage is to
carry the cutting tool. To the saddle is fitted the cross slide which
may be caused to move by hand or power feed at 900 to the axis of the
lathe. On the cross slide is mounted the compound rest which can be
swiveled and clamped at any angle. On its upper side is a T-slot
which carries the tool post. The carriage is moved along the ways
by means of a spool gear traveling in a rack at the front of the bed.
The apron contains the gears and clutches used to transmit motion
from the feed rod or lead screw to the carriage.
e. The feeding and threading mechanisms are power fed from the
spindle by means of a gear train. All modern lathes are provided
with a quick change gear box so that various feeds may be obtained
easily and quickly. Power is transmitted through the feed rod to
the carriage in normal cutting and from the lead screw to the carriage
3. Care and maintenance.-a. In order that a lathe may operate
efficiently it must be properly mounted and adjusted. Primarily, the
lathe must be set and maintained in a level position. It should be
mounted on a solid concrete foundation, if possible; however, it may
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United States. Army. Air Corps. Lathes, book, November 29, 1940; Washington, D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96655/m1/4/: accessed February 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.