Lathes Page: 14
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9-10 AIR CORPS
parts water, and adding sufficient sal soda to cause the mixture to
emulsify. The amount of sal soda generally required is 1 ounce to
each gallon of mixture. This compound is recommended when ma-
chining steels of the low and medium carbon groups.
(2) Pure turpentine or turpentine mixtures are used when ma-
chining hard and refractory steel or chilled iron.
(3) Kerosene is used when machining aluminum and aluminum
(4) Cast iron is generally machined dry. However, to obtain bet-
ter finish when threading or reaming, it is advisable to use water to
which sufficient sal soda has been added to prevent rusting.
(5) Brass is generally machined dry, although in some operations
it may be necessary to use a cutting oil to obtain satisfactory results.
A water and lard oil emulsion is recommended in this case.
(6) Mineral oil, lard oil, or paraffin oil is used when a lubricant is
necessary in machining copper.
(7) Stainless steel and monel metal require a compound made up
of white lead and lard oil.
APPLICATION OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
General ---- ---------------- . ------- - -------------- -- ---- 1
Clippers -------------------- -- --------- ----------------------- 11
Test indicators -_ -___12
Gages - -- -- -- . .. - - - .. .... -- - -- - ---- 13
Buttons -- 14
10. General.-a. In order that correct sizes may be maintained.
parts duplicated, and various pieces accurately mated, an assortment
of measuring and calibrating instruments is required for machine
work. Some of these are direct reading, while others are used to
transfer the size of one part to another. The graduations and calibra-
tion of all good direct-reading measuring instruments must be accurate
and reliable. If they vary, the parts made in one shop would not be
interchangeable with like parts made and measured in another shop.
The majority of the tool manufacturers have their "master" measur-
ing tools conform, as near as possible, to specific dimensions main-
tained by the Bureau of Standards. This is done by sending the
tools, gages, etc., to the Bureau of Standards at regular intervals to
have them certified as to accuracy.
b. The most simple direct-reading measuring tool used by the
machinist is the steel rule.
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United States. Army. Air Corps. Lathes, book, November 29, 1940; Washington, D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96655/m1/16/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.