Watermanship Page: 5
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the buoyancy of air trapped in his chest forces him to
the surface. By expelling part of the air he can sub-
merge without effort. He learns hbw to expel air
through his nose under water, and above water to gulp
air through his mouth. He gains confidence. In deeper
water he is taught how to bob up and down. Bobbing
is performed by raising the arms abruptly, sideward and
upward, when he wants to go down (fig. 1 ); and
lowering the arms abruptly, sideward and downward,
when he wants to go up (fig. 1 ).
b. Floating. Floating is the best way to conserve energy.
Anyone can float, either motionless or with a slight
movement of the arms or legs. To increase body buoy-
ancy the chest is expanded as much as possible. After
taking a deep breath further expansion can be accom-
plished without sucking in air merely by pulling up the
stomach with the stomach muscles. Floating, combined
with particular arm and leg movements to give propul-
sion, is swimming.
(1) Back float (fig. 2 ,[ 1 ]). This, the best relaxing
float, can be accomplished with legs together or apart
and arms extended to the side or overhead. With legs
together and arms by the side there is a tendency for the
legs to sink and drag the body under.
(2) Jelly-fish float (fig. 2 ). The body is doubled
up by bending the legs, pulling the knees to' the chest,
and dropping the head on the chest. Arms clasp knees.
In this position the body will roll forward until only the
back is visible above water. The jelly-fish float is used
mainly when removing clothing.
(3) Prone float (fig. 2 ). This is the basic position
for all prone swimming strokes. It is performed by lying
face down on the water, arms and legs extended. It is
used with the face submerged, eyes open, to see under
the water, or with the head high, to observe above it.
6. PRONE STROKES. a. Dog paddle (fig. 3). This is
done from the probe-float position by using the arms
and legs in exactly the same manner as when climbing
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United States. War Department. Watermanship, book, April 25, 1944; Washington, D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96650/m1/11/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.